Hierarchical Frequency Control in Multi-MicroGrids: The Participation of Electric Vehicles

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Nuno José Gil
Pedro Rocha Almeida
João Peças Lopes
Diego Issicaba
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The operation and planning of Low Voltage (LV) and Medium Voltage (MV) distribution networks have been changing over the last decade. Due to the presence of Distributed Generation (DG) and microgeneration, an active role has been attributed to these networks in grid operation. For this accomplishment, different conceptual approaches were developed. In [1], a hierarchical control structure was defined, considering that DG units, onload tap changer transformers, static var compensators and loads can be controlled by a hierarchically higher entity, the Central Autonomous Management Unit (CAMC). The CAMC is also responsible for the management of specific LV networks, the MicroGrids (MG), which in turn have autonomy to manage their loads and microgeneration units through an entity called MicroGrid Central Controller (MGCC). A MV grid with these characteristics plus some storage devices would then be called a Multi-MicroGrid (MMG), being, among other functionalities, able to operate isolated from the upstream network. The recent appearance of a new type of load to the system, the Electric Vehicle (EV), expected to be largely integrated in the electricity grids in the upcoming years, has a great potential for adding controllability to the MMG. In this paper, an EV control droop (see [2]) will be introduced to improve the MMG performance when EVs operate as active elements. EV controllers are then able to receive setpoints from the CAMC and also actively update the droop settings in