The MERGE Project: Impacts of Electric Vehicles on the Distribution System Steady-State Operation

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Clara Sofia Gouveia
Filipe Joel Soares
Pedro Rocha Almeida
Pedro Pereira Barbeiro
João Peças Lopes
Carlos Moreira
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This paper describes the main results of the MERGE project relative to Electric Vehicle (EV) charging strategies and the impacts of EV integration on the steady-state grid operation. MERGE is a €4.5m, collaborative research project supported by the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The consortium includes utilities, regulators, commercial organisations and universities with interests in the power generation, automotive, electronic commerce and hybrid and electric vehicle sectors across the entire European Union (EU). One of the MERGE project missions is to evaluate the impacts that EV will have on EU electric power systems, exploring EV and SmartGrid/MicroGrid simultaneous deployment, together with renewable energy increase, to achieve CO2 emission reduction through the identification of enabling technologies and advanced control approaches. The work presented proposes three charging strategies, dumb charging, multiple price tariffs and smart charging, and uses EV integration scenarios of adherence to these charging schemes. The resulting scenarios are tested using an algorithm coded with Python and using PSS/E, created within the MERGE framework to study EU grids steady-state behaviour. Additionally, the critical mass of EV adherence to smart charging schemes that brings positive impacts to the distribution grids operation was also evaluated.