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    On the development of a collaborative robotic system for industrial coating cells
    ( 2021) Rafael Lírio Arrais ; Carlos Miguel Costa ; Ribeiro,P ; Luís Freitas Rocha ; Manuel Santos Silva ; Germano Veiga ; 5364 ; 6164 ; 6551 ; 5655 ; 5674
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    A Versatile, Low-Power and Low-Cost IoT Device for Field Data Gathering in Precision Agriculture Practices
    ( 2021) Morais,R ; Emanuel Peres Correia ; Sousa,JJ ; Silva,N ; Silva,R ; Mendes,J ; 5653
    Spatial and temporal variability characterization in Precision Agriculture (PA) practices is often accomplished by proximity data gathering devices, which acquire data from a wide variety of sensors installed within the vicinity of crops. Proximity data acquisition usually depends on a hardware solution to which some sensors can be coupled, managed by a software that may (or may not) store, process and send acquired data to a back-end using some communication protocol. The sheer number of both proprietary and open hardware solutions, together with the diversity and characteristics of available sensors, is enough to deem the task of designing a data acquisition device complex. Factoring in the harsh operational context, the multiple DIY solutions presented by an active online community, available in-field power approaches and the different communication protocols, each proximity monitoring solution can be regarded as singular. Data acquisition devices should be increasingly flexible, not only by supporting a large number of heterogeneous sensors, but also by being able to resort to different communication protocols, depending on both the operational and functional contexts in which they are deployed. Furthermore, these small and unattended devices need to be sufficiently robust and cost-effective to allow greater in-field measurement granularity 365 days/year. This paper presents a low-cost, flexible and robust data acquisition device that can be deployed in different operational contexts, as it also supports three different communication technologies: IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee, LoRa/LoRaWAN and GRPS. Software and hardware features, suitable for using heat pulse methods to measure sap flow, leaf wetness sensors and others are embedded. Its power consumption is of only 83 µA during sleep mode and the cost of the basic unit was kept below the EUR 100 limit. In-field continuous evaluation over the past three years prove that the proposed solution—SPWAS’21—is not only reliable but also represents a robust and low-cost data acquisition device capable of gathering different parameters of interest in PA practices.
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    VisWebDrone: A Web Application for UAV Photogrammetry Based on Open-Source Software
    ( 2020) Padua,L ; Guimaraes,N ; Sousa,JJ ; Emanuel Peres Correia ; Hruska,J ; Adao,T ; 5653
    Currently, the use of free and open-source software is increasing. The flexibility, availability, and maturity of this software could be a key driver to develop useful and interesting solutions. In general, open-source solutions solve specific tasks that can replace commercial solutions, which are often very expensive. This is even more noticeable in areas requiring analysis and manipulation/visualization of a large volume of data. Considering that there is a major gap in the development of web applications for photogrammetric processing, based on open-source technologies that offer quality results, the application presented in this article is intended to explore this niche. Thus, in this article a solution for photogrammetric processing is presented, based on the integration of MicMac, GeoServer, Leaflet, and Potree software. The implemented architecture, focusing on open-source software for data processing and for graphical manipulation, visualization, measuring, and analysis, is presented in detail. To assess the results produced by the proposed web application, a case study is presented, using imagery acquired from an unmanned aerial vehicle in two different areas.
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    Monitoring of Chestnut Trees Using Machine Learning Techniques Applied to UAV-Based Multispectral Data
    ( 2020) Martins,L ; Sousa,JJ ; Emanuel Peres Correia ; Luís Filipe Pádua ; Marques,P ; António Ribeiro Sousa ; 5844 ; 7802 ; 5653
    Phytosanitary conditions can hamper the normal development of trees and significantly impact their yield. The phytosanitary condition of chestnut stands is usually evaluated by sampling trees followed by a statistical extrapolation process, making it a challenging task, as it is labor-intensive and requires skill. In this study, a novel methodology that enables multi-temporal analysis of chestnut stands using multispectral imagery acquired from unmanned aerial vehicles is presented. Data were collected in different flight campaigns along with field surveys to identify the phytosanitary issues affecting each tree. A random forest classifier was trained with sections of each tree crown using vegetation indices and spectral bands. These were first categorized into two classes: (i) absence or (ii) presence of phytosanitary issues. Subsequently, the class with phytosanitary issues was used to identify and classify either biotic or abiotic factors. The comparison between the classification results, obtained by the presented methodology, with ground-truth data, allowed us to conclude that phytosanitary problems were detected with an accuracy rate between 86% and 91%. As for determining the specific phytosanitary issue, rates between 80% and 85% were achieved. Higher accuracy rates were attained in the last flight campaigns, the stage when symptoms are more prevalent. The proposed methodology proved to be effective in automatically detecting and classifying phytosanitary issues in chestnut trees throughout the growing season. Moreover, it is also able to identify decline or expansion situations. It may be of help as part of decision support systems that further improve on the efficient and sustainable management practices of chestnut stands.
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    Online inspection system based on machine learning techniques: real case study of fabric textures classification for the automotive industry
    ( 2019) Luís Freitas Rocha ; Malaca,P ; Germano Veiga ; Silva,J ; Gomes,D ; 5364 ; 5674
    This paper focus on the classification, in real-time and under uncontrolled lighting, of fabric textures for the automotive industry. Many industrial processes have spatial constraints that limit the effective control of illumination of their vision based systems, hindering their effectiveness. The ability to overcome these problems using robust classification methods with suitable pre-processing techniques and choice of characteristics will increase the efficiency of this type of solutions with obvious production gains and thus economical. For this purpose, this paper studied and analyzed various pre-processing techniques, and selected the most appropriate fabric characteristics for the considered industrial case scenario. The methodology followed was based on the comparison of two different machine learning classifiers, ANN and SVM, using a large set of samples with a large variability of lightning conditions to faithfully simulate the industrial environment. The obtained solution shows the sensibility of ANN over SVM considering the number of features and the size of the training set, showing the better effectiveness and robustness of the last. The characteristics vector uses histogram equalization, Laws filter and Sobel filter, and multi-scale analysis. By using a correlation based method was possible to reduce the number of features used, achieving a better balanced between processing time and classification ratio. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York