Economic and technical management of an aggregation agent for electric vehicles: a literature survey

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Manuel Matos
Ricardo Jorge Bessa
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The foreseeable increase in the use of electric vehicles (EV) led to the discussion on intermediate entities that could help manage a great number of EV. An aggregation agent for electric vehicles is a commercial middleman between a system operator and plug-in EV. From the system operator perspective, the aggregator is seen as a large source of generation or load, which could provide ancillary services such as spinning and regulating reserve. Generally these services will be provided in the dayahead and intraday electricity markets. In addition, the aggregator also participates in the electricity market with supply and demand energy bids. This paper provides a comprehensive bibliographic survey on the aggregator role in the power system operation and electricity market. The scope of the survey covers 59 references divided in journal, conference proceedings, thesis, research papers, and technical reports published after 1994. These papers are put into several technical categories: electricity market and EV technical and economic issues; aggregation agent concept, role and business model; algorithms for EV management as a load/resource.