Mach-Zehnder Based on Large Knot Fiber Resonator for Refractive Index Measurement

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André Delgado Gomes
Orlando Frazão
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A Mach-Zehnder sensor based on a large knot fiber resonator with a diameter of a few millimeters is designed using a single long taper. The long taper of some centimeters is fabricated with a CO2 laser technique. In air, light cannot couple between adjacent sections in the knot, and no signal is observed. However, in liquid, light is less confined and there is coupling between adjacent sections of the knot, resulting in a phase difference and consequent interference. The Mach-Zehnder is formed by the two contact points in the knot. The refractive index sensing of liquid compounds is achieved by monitoring the wavelength shift of the spectra. A sensitivity of 642 ± 29 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) is achieved for refractive index sensing in the range of 1.3735-1.428 with a resolution of 0.009 RIU. For temperature sensing, a sensitivity of -42 ± 9 pm/°C is observed. A low influence of temperature in the refractive index change is observed: 6.5 × 10-5 RIU/°C. © 2016 IEEE.