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|Title:||A chemometrics approach applied to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) for monitoring the spoilage of fresh salmon (Salmo salar) stored under modified atmospheres|
|Abstract:||The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to detect and predict the bacterial load of salmon fillets (Salmo salar) stored at 3, 8 and 30 degrees C under three packaging conditions: air packaging (AP) and two modified atmospheres constituted by a mixture of 50%N-2/40%CO2/10%O-2 with lemon juice (MAPL) and without lemon juice (MAP). Fresh salmon samples were periodically examined for total viable counts (TVC), specific spoilage organisms (SSO) counts, pH, FTIR and sensory assessment of freshness. Principal components analysis (PCA) allowed identification of the wavenumbers potentially correlated with the spoilage process. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of infrared spectral data was performed to support sensory data and to accurately identify samples freshness. The effect of the packaging atmospheres was assessed by microbial enumeration and LDA was used to determine sample packaging from the measured infrared spectra. It was verified that modified atmospheres can decrease significantly the bacterial load of fresh salmon. Lemon juice combined with MAP showed a more pronounced delay in the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta, Photobacterium phosphoreum, psychrotrophs and H2S producers. Partial least squares regression (PLS-R) allowed estimates of TVC and psychrotrophs, lactic acid bacteria, molds and yeasts, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and H2S producer counts from the infrared spectral data: For TVC, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) value was 0.78 log cfu g(-1) for an external set of samples. According to the results, FTIR can be used as a reliable, accurate and fast method for real time freshness evaluation of salmon fillets stored under different temperatures and packaging atmospheres.|
|Appears in Collections:||Non INESC TEC publications - Articles in International Journals|
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