Mass Producible Low-Loss Broadband Optical Waveguides in Eagle2000 by Femtosecond Laser Writing

No Thumbnail Available
Vítor Oliveira Amorim
Carlos Duarte Viveiros
João Miguel Maia
Paulo Vicente Marques
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Optical waveguides were fabricated in alkaline earth boro-aluminosilicate glass, by femtosecond laser direct writing, with varying pulse energy and scan velocity. A spectral characterization, from 500 nm to 1700 nm, was made in order to determine their losses and understand its dependence on the processing parameters. Three major loss mechanisms were identified. At longer wavelengths, loss is mainly due to weak coupling. On the other hand, the behavior at shorter wavelengths is governed by propagation loss due to Rayleigh scattering, which was shown to be practically eliminated (& x003C; 0.05 dB $\cdot$ cm $<^>{-1} {\cdot }\,\,\mu \text{m}<^>{4}$ ) at higher scan velocities. Bulk absorption was also found to have an influence in the propagation losses at higher wavelengths. The combination of intermediate pulse energies (between 125-250 nJ) and high scan velocities (above 6 cm/s) allowed the fabrication of optical waveguides offering low losses across the entire range of wavelengths tested, facilitating applications that require larger wavelength working bands. Furthermore, since optimal fabrication conditions are achieved at higher scanning velocities, mass production with reduced fabrication times can be achieved.