Modeling of video projectors in OpenGL for implementing a spatial augmented reality teaching system for assembly operations

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Rui Pedro Rodrigues
Carlos Miguel Costa
Germano Veiga
Armando Sousa
Luís Freitas Rocha
Augusto Sousa
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Teaching complex assembly and maintenance skills to human operators usually requires extensive reading and the help of tutors. In order to reduce the training period and avoid the need for human supervision, an immersive teaching system using spatial augmented reality was developed for guiding inexperienced operators. The system provides textual and video instructions for each task while also allowing the operator to navigate between the teaching steps and control the video playback using a bare hands natural interaction interface that is projected into the workspace. Moreover, for helping the operator during the final validation and inspection phase, the system projects the expected 3D outline of the final product. The proposed teaching system was tested with the assembly of a starter motor and proved to be more intuitive than reading the traditional user manuals. This proof of concept use case served to validate the fundamental technologies and approaches that were proposed to achieve an intuitive and accurate augmented reality teaching application. Among the main challenges were the proper modeling and calibration of the sensing and projection hardware along with the 6 DoF pose estimation of objects for achieving precise overlap between the 3D rendered content and the physical world. On the other hand, the conceptualization of the information flow and how it can be conveyed on-demand to the operator was also of critical importance for ensuring a smooth and intuitive experience for the operator. © 2019 IEEE.