Deep Learning YOLO-Based Solution for Grape Bunch Detection and Assessment of Biophysical Lesions

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Daniel Queirós Silva
Paulo Moura Oliveira
Mário Cunha
Filipe Neves Santos
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<jats:p>The world wine sector is a multi-billion dollar industry with a wide range of economic activities. Therefore, it becomes crucial to monitor the grapevine because it allows a more accurate estimation of the yield and ensures a high-quality end product. The most common way of monitoring the grapevine is through the leaves (preventive way) since the leaves first manifest biophysical lesions. However, this does not exclude the possibility of biophysical lesions manifesting in the grape berries. Thus, this work presents three pre-trained YOLO models (YOLOv5x6, YOLOv7-E6E, and YOLOR-CSP-X) to detect and classify grape bunches as healthy or damaged by the number of berries with biophysical lesions. Two datasets were created and made publicly available with original images and manual annotations to identify the complexity between detection (bunches) and classification (healthy or damaged) tasks. The datasets use the same 10,010 images with different classes. The Grapevine Bunch Detection Dataset uses the Bunch class, and The Grapevine Bunch Condition Detection Dataset uses the OptimalBunch and DamagedBunch classes. Regarding the three models trained for grape bunches detection, they obtained promising results, highlighting YOLOv7 with 77% of mAP and 94% of the F1-score. In the case of the task of detection and identification of the state of grape bunches, the three models obtained similar results, with YOLOv5 achieving the best ones with an mAP of 72% and an F1-score of 92%.</jats:p>