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|Title:||Combined Sizing and Energy Management in EVs With Batteries and Supercapacitors|
|Authors:||Rui Esteves Araujo|
|Abstract:||This paper is concerned with the study of combined sizing and energy management algorithms for electric vehicles (EVs) endowed with batteries and supercapacitors (SCs). The main goal is to find the number of cells of each source that minimizes the installation and running costs of the EV, taking into account the performance requirements specified for the vehicle and the technical constraints of the energy sources. To tackle this problem, two methodologies will be investigated. The first considers a filter-based approach to perform the power split among the sources; it will be shown that, under some practical assumptions, the resultant sizing problem can be posed as a linear programming problem and solved using efficient numerical techniques. The second methodology employs an optimal noncausal energy management, which, when integrated with the sizing problem, yields a nonlinear optimization problem. These two methodologies will be then applied to size the storage unit of a small EV. The results indicate that the filter-based approach, although simple and numerically efficient, generally requires an oversized storage unit. Furthermore, it was also concluded that, if the range requirements of the EV are not very high (below 50 km, in our case study), the use of SCs enables energy savings of up to 7.8%.|
|Appears in Collections:||CPES - Articles in International Journals|
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