Global against divided optimization for the participation of an EV aggregator in the day-ahead electricity market. Part I: Theory

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Ricardo Jorge Bessa
Manuel Matos
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This paper addresses the bidding problem faced by an electric vehicles (EV) aggregation agent when participating in the day-ahead electrical energy market. Two alternative optimization approaches, global and divided, with the same goal (i.e. solve the same problem) are described. The difference is on how information about EV is modeled. The global approach uses aggregated values of the EV variables and the optimization model determines the bids exclusively based on total values. The divided approach uses individual information from each EV. In both approaches, statistical forecasting methods are formulated for the EV variables. After the day-ahead bidding, a second phase (named operational management) is required for mitigating the deviation between accepted bids and consumed electrical energy for EV charging. A sequential linear optimization problem is formulated for minimizing the deviation costs. This chain of algorithms provides to the EV aggregation agent a pathway to move to the smart-grid paradigm where load dispatch is a possibility.