Temperature Stability and Spectral Tuning of Long Period Fiber Gratings Fabricated by Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing

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Carlos Duarte Viveiros
José Almeida
Luís Carlos Coelho
Helena Soares Vasconcelos
João Miguel Maia
Vítor Oliveira Amorim
Pedro Jorge
Paulo Vicente Marques
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<jats:p>Long period fiber gratings (LPFGs) were fabricated in a standard single mode fiber (SMF-28e) through femtosecond (fs) laser direct writing. LPFGs with longer and shorter periods were fabricated, which allows coupling from the fundamental core mode to lower and higher order asymmetric cladding modes (LP1,6 and LP1,12, respectively). For the grating periods of 182.7 and 192.5 µm, it was verified that the LP1,12 mode exhibits a TAP at approximately 1380 and 1448 nm in air and water, respectively. Characterization of the LPFGs subjected to high-temperature thermal treatment was accomplished. Fine-tuning of the resonance band’s position and thermal stability up to 600 °C was shown. The temperature sensitivity was characterized for the gratings with different periods and for different temperature ranges. A maximum sensitivity of -180.73, and 179.29 pm/°C was obtained for the two resonances of the 182.7 µm TAP LPFG, in the range between 250 and 600 °C.</jats:p>